85.Na, ‘with,’ is used (60) with a noun to express the idea of having, possessing, &c., for which no verbs exist in Zulu.
In this way also the lack of adjectives is largely supplied.
Ex. uNkulunkulu unobubele, God he (is) with mercy=God is merciful.
inkosikazi inomusa, the Queen (is) with grace = is gracious.
ihashi linamandla, the horse (is) with strength = is strong.
umuntu una’nto’mbili esibilini sakhe, a man has two things in his person, for unezinto ezimbili.
86. When na is used in the sense of having, &c., in a negative or interrogative sense, the noun which follows it loses the initial letter of its inflex, as in the last of the above examples.
N.B. In the following examples, the negative particle takes the form of a prefix a, or of an inserted nga or nge, according to rules which will be given hereafter.
Ex. angina’ muntu, I have no person, from umuntu.
akuna’lutho, it is of no consequence, from ulutho.
ungabi na’mona, be not thou envious, from umona.
ngingena’hashi, I having no horse, from ihashi.
ungena’bantwana , thou having no children, from abantwana.
una’hashi lini na? what horse hast thou ?
sina’mnako’muni nawe na? we have what business with thee?
ang’azi na’kubuya mina, I don’t know even about returning = whether I shall return at all.
okwake akuna’kukuzwa, akuna’kubatshazwa, his (affair) is not (with hearing it=) to be heard, it is not to be talked about=it passes our comprehension altogether.
asiqedi na’kubuya, we are not certain either about (his) returning.
The same thing occurs in such negative or interrogative sentences as the following.
Ex. ningapangi’ muntu, do not ye plunder any man.
ubona’lutho na? dost thou see anything?
okungekwa’kuzenzisa, which is not of hypocrisy.
okungekwa’mthetho, which is not of the law.
87. Na also expresses and, also, both, too, even, &c.
Ex. emhlabeni nas’emanzini, in the earth and in the water.
uJojo wahamba naye, Jojo went also, or Jojo went, he too.
ses’esaba nokunyatela, we now feared even to tread.
Ngingena sikati nesokudla, I having not time even to eat.
as’azi na’kufa nani, we know not whether it is death or what, =whether he will die or not.
zingakaphumi nenkomo, and the cattle not having yet gone out.
88. Na may be prefixed either to the noun itself, or to the corresponding pronoun, with the noun following in appositicn.
Ex. nezinto zonke, or nazo zonke izinto, and all things.
And so with the other prepositions ku, nga, njenga, &c.
89. Na is also used after verbs in ana, and some others, which imply a mutual action.
Ex. salahlekelana nezindhlela zakho, we erred from thy ways (lit. we and thy ways were lost to each other).
iquzuke lapha nesondo, it (the wagon) has got struck here (with the wheel=) on the wheel.
ibanga eliya eThekwini nas’emGungundhlovu kude kangakanani, usuka emGungundhlovu uya eThekwini na? the distance which goes from Durban to Maritzburg (is) how far, thou starting from Maritzburg, thou going to Durban?
90. Ku is used to express the force of the Locative in all its different shades of meaning, to, from, at, among, &c.
Ex. kuvela kuwe, it comes from thee.
ngiya ku’malume, I am going to my (maternal) uncle.
ngiya kwomalume (=ku-omalume), I am going to my (two or more) uncles, or to my mother’s kraal.
As proper nouns have no Locative forms, ku will always beused with them, to express the sense of the Locative. Or, when emphasis is required, ku may be used with the personal pronoun, followed by the noun in apposition.
Ex. indhlela eya ku’Mpande or kuye uMpande, a path which goes to Umpande.
91. Ku is also used with a Plural Personal Pronoun, to express my or our people, &c.
Ex. Kuthi, kithi, kithina, my or our people (lit. among us) ;
kuni, kini, kinina, thy or your people.
kubo, kubona, his or their people.
Abafazi bakithi, women of ours; izinkomo zakini, cattle of yours.
Izwe lakubo, land of theirs, that is, of his or their people
Uye ekhaya kubo, he is gone home to his people = to his tribe.
hambani niye kini, (go ye=) be off to your tribe.
So also with Plural Proper Names.
Ex. kwoNgoza for ku-oNgoza = kubo ka’Ngoza, the people of Ngoza.
Ku or kuna is also used in comparisons as follows.
Ex. uma kutiwa angikete kunoJojo noFaku, ahle ngikete uJojo, if it be said (that) I should choose between Jojo and Faku, I would choose Jojo.
92. Kwa is used with a Plural Personal Pronoun, to express at, to, or from the hut, or kraal, or people of the person referred to.
Ex. uhlezi endlini kwabo, he is staying in the hut, at his father’s.
but uhlezi ekhaya kubo, he is staying at his own home.
sabona kwa’Dukuza, we saw uDukuza (kraal).
bahlezi endlini ka’Mfulatelwa kwa’Ngoza, they are stopping at Mfulatelwa’s hut, among Ngoza’ s people.
umuntu wakwa’Zulu, wakwa’Zungu, &c., a man of the Zulus, the Zungus, &c., a complimentary way of naming the man’s great ancestor uZulu, uZungu, &c.
N.B. The following idiomatic expressions are noticeable.
Ex. kubo=his or their people, tribe, family, &c.
kwabo=his or their people’s place, kraal, hut, &c.
kwo’Ngoza or kwa’ Ngoza, at Ngoza’ s.
inkabi ka’Jojo, Jojo’s ox; inkabi yakubo ka’Jojo or yakwo’Jojo
or yako’Jojo, ox of Jojo’s people; inkabi yakwa’Jojo, an ox of Jojo or of Jojo’s people (if he is their chief).
umdindimana wakwabo’Tolapi, a little pot of Tolapi’s (place).
abako’nyanga, the doctor’s people, for abakubo inyanga.
sasing’abako’ Ngomane, we were Ngomane’s people.
kwelako’Magema=kwelakwoMagema=kwelakubo’Magema, at (the land, izwe) of Magema’s people.
kwabo’Venge, at Venge’s father’s kraal, &c.
kufupi nje kubo, it is quite near, his (their) people.
abantu bako’ntombi, for bakubo’ntombi, the girl’s people.
abantu bakhona ko’ntombi, the people of their, the girl’s people.
wabaleka lapha kubo kwa’Zulu, he fled from here home to Zululand.
wayibonga inkosi yakubo wayikwelisa ngamazibukwana, he praised
the chief of his people, he carried him (sang his praise) over the drifts=all the rivers.
kwelakithi (izwe), eTongwe, kwa’ maningi amagonsi, at our country, eTongwe, where the amagonsi abound (lit. at many amagonsi plants).
impi yakwa’Sikonyana, the impi of Sikonyana’s people.
N.B. A wife will say kwethu of her husband’s father’s house; mta kwethu, ‘ child of ours,’ may be said by one boy or girl to another.
93. Nga is used for through, by means of, for, by reason of, concerning, on account of, &c.
Ex. ngamandla amakhulu, through mighty power.
ngazo zonk’izinto, or ngezinto zonke, on account of all things.
ak’eme nga’nyawo, let him stand by a foot = let him just stop a bit.
94. Diversity of number, time, place, &c., is expressed by means of ana, and a repetition of the noun.
Ex. esakhuluma imihla ngemihla, he still speaking day by day.
kukhona izinto ngezinto ezil’igugu, there are there things upon things that are precious.
namhlanje ngibone imibala ngemibala yezinto zabelungu, to-day I have seen all sorts of colours of white-men’s things.
ahle nibeke amadoda ngamadoda adla ubomi, come and see (men upon men) a number of men eating ubomi (meat in an incipient state of putrefaction, which, like high game, is much approved by natives).
umuntu ofuyileyo nangas’enkomeni, a man who is well off too in respect of cattle.
95. Nga is used to express ‘two and two,’ &c.
Ex. baya ngababili, ngabathathu, &c.,they went by two’s, by three’s, &c.
96. Nga is used also in the sense of about or towards.
Ex. uvela ngapi, or uvela ngaphi na? thou comest from whereabout?
but uvela-phi na? thou comest from where?
uye ngalapha, he is gone there-about.
izwe langas’emVoti, land of about the Umvoti.
uye ngakubo, he is gone towards his people.
izwe langakwa’Ngoza, land about Ngoza’s (people).
So we have phezu, above, ngaphezu, somewhere above; phansi, below, ngaphansi, somewhere below, &c.
97. Nga is also used for the purpose of (ukubonga) extolling or expressing admiration.
Ex. uNgoza ngehashi lakhe! Ngoza for his horse! = what a fine horse has Ngoza!
Wo! ngebandhla lika’Jojo! what a troop of men has Jojo!
98. From the word nga are compounded many words used as adverbs or conjunctions.
Ex. ngako, therefore, = nga-ko, on account of it,
ngokuba, because, = nga ukuba, on account of the being.
99. From the same root nga are probably formed the preposition njenga, like as, nganga, as great or as many as.
Ex. njengokukhanya kwelanga, like as the light of the sun.
Ungangawe na? is he as large as thou?
100. The direct agent after any Passive (or Neuter) Verb or Participle may be denoted by prefixing ng’ to the noun which expresses it, if its inflex begins with u or a, or y’ if the noun’s inflex begins with i, or y’i, before a pronoun (111).
Ex. kutshiwo ng’uNgoza loko, it is said hy Ngoza, that.
wadhliwa y’inkato, he was chosen (eaten) by the lot.
ngilibele y’imisebenzi, I have been delayed by works.
ningakolwa y’iloko, do not (be satisfied by =) credit that.
Or l’ may be used before nouns in ili and ulu.
Ex. utshaywe I’itshe embaleni, he has been struck by a stone on the shin.
lo’muntu I’idaka, that man is a sot.
leyo’nkomo itwel’amehlo, il’idhlanyasi, that bullock has lifted the eyes, it is mischievous.
waba I’ukuni, he was a fire-log, i.e., hard, stiff, unbending.
iminyaka el’ishumi, years which are ten.
waba I’uto lulapha, he was something here = he was furious as a tiger.
Or nga may be used with a plural pronoun.
Ex. wabonwa ngabo, he was seen by them, or he was seen hy means of them.
101. The above particles, however, are very often omitted, and the agent stands after the verb without any sign to distinguish it.
Ex. kutshiwo uNgoza loko; wadhliwa inkato.
kunjenje umlilo, it is so through fire.
102. In point of fact, the particles (ng’, y’) in the above are not prepositions, as they seem to be, but are employed as a kind of copula in place of the substantive-verb — perhaps, merely for euphony, to avoid an hiatus. We shall call them the Substantive Particles.
Ex. lowo’muntu ung’ubani na? that man he is who?
sing’abantu baka’Ngoza (s’abantu baka’Ngoza), we are people of Ngoza.
ngiy’indodana yakho, I am thy son.
izinkomo ziy’incozana, the cattle are a few.
y’isitsha lesi or ‘sitsha lesi, this is a cup.
ubuhle obu’buhle bezinto zonke, the beautiful which is the beautiful of all things, for obung’ubuhle.
103. Hence it would appear that the real construction of such expressions as those in (100) is as follows.
Ex. kutshiwo — uNgoza or ng’uNgoza, it is said — it is Ngoza (who says it).